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Petite Ada ScStr - Histoire


Petite Ada
(ScStr : t 150 ; 1. 112' ; n. 12'6" ; dr. 8', art. 10k.
une. 2 20 livres Parrott r.)

Little Ada, un vapeur à vis en fer ; a été construit dans le Clyde en Écosse; capturé et abandonné dans la rivière South Santee le 30 mars 1864; repris en mer par Gettysburg le 9 juillet 1864 ; acheté par la Marine à la Cour des Prix de Boston le 18 août 1864 et commandé à Boston le 5 octobre 1864. Maître par intérim Samu~l P. Craft aux commandes.

Après son départ, Little Ada reçut l'ordre de se rendre à Western Bar, à Cape Fear River, le 8 novembre 1864. En décembre, elle participa aux attaques de Fort Fisher.

Le service le plus actif de Little Ada a eu lieu en 1865. Elle faisait partie de la ligne distincte de l'escadron de blocage de l'Atlantique Nord, les provisions de débarquement du 3 janvier pour l'armée. Elle a participé de nouveau aux attaques sur Fort Fisher du 12 au 15 janvier, transportant des dépêches à travers la flotte. Après avoir été affecté à la flottille du Potomac le 10 mars, il a capturé un grand bateau de chantier le 9 avril à Hooper Strait, dans le Maryland. Il a été envoyé au Washington Navy Yard le 31 mai 1865, désarmé le 24 juin 1865 et transféré au Département de la guerre le 12 août 1865.


Quand le «Capitol Crawl» a dramatisé la loi sur le besoin d'Américains handicapés

Le 13 mars 1990, plus de 1 000 personnes ont défilé de la Maison Blanche au Capitole des États-Unis pour exiger que le Congrès adopte la Americans with Disabilities Act, ou ADA. Quand ils sont arrivés là-bas, environ 60 d'entre eux ont mis de côté leurs fauteuils roulants et autres aides à la mobilité et ont grimpé les marches du Capitole.

L'&# x201CCapitol Crawl, comme on l'appelle, était une démonstration physique de l'impact de l'architecture inaccessible sur les personnes handicapées. Il a également souligné l'urgence de la nécessité d'adopter l'ADA, que le président George H.W. Bush a promulgué la loi le 26 juillet 1990.


George Boole

Nos rédacteurs examineront ce que vous avez soumis et détermineront s'il faut réviser l'article.

George Boole, (né le 2 novembre 1815 à Lincoln, Lincolnshire, Angleterre - décédé le 8 décembre 1864 à Ballintemple, comté de Cork, Irlande), mathématicien anglais qui a aidé à établir la logique symbolique moderne et dont l'algèbre de la logique, maintenant appelée algèbre booléenne, est fondamentale pour la conception de circuits informatiques numériques.

Boole a reçu ses premières leçons de mathématiques par son père, un commerçant, qui lui a également appris à fabriquer des instruments d'optique. Mis à part l'aide de son père et quelques années dans les écoles locales, Boole était un autodidacte en mathématiques. Lorsque l'entreprise de son père a décliné, George a dû travailler pour subvenir aux besoins de la famille. Dès l'âge de 16 ans, il enseigna dans des écoles villageoises du West Riding of Yorkshire, et il ouvrit sa propre école à Lincoln à l'âge de 20 ans. Pendant son temps libre, il lisait des revues de mathématiques au Lincoln's Mechanics Institute. Là, il a également lu le livre d'Isaac Newton Principia, Pierre-Simon Laplace Traité de mécanique céleste, et celle de Joseph-Louis Lagrange Mécanique analytique et a commencé à résoudre des problèmes avancés en algèbre.

Boole a soumis un flux d'articles originaux au nouveau Revue mathématique de Cambridge, commençant en 1841 avec ses « Recherches sur la théorie des transformations analytiques ». Ces articles portaient sur les équations différentielles et le problème algébrique de la transformation linéaire, mettant l'accent sur le concept d'invariance. En 1844, dans un important journal de la Transactions philosophiques de la Royal Society, "Sur une méthode générale d'analyse", pour laquelle il a reçu la première médaille d'or de la Royal Society pour les mathématiques, il a expliqué comment les méthodes d'algèbre et de calcul pourraient être combinées. Boole a vite vu que son algèbre pouvait également être appliquée en logique.

Développant de nouvelles idées sur la méthode logique et confiant dans le raisonnement symbolique qu'il avait tiré de ses recherches mathématiques, il publia en 1847 une brochure, L'analyse mathématique de la logique, étant un essai vers un calcul du raisonnement déductif, dans lequel il a soutenu de manière convaincante que la logique devrait être alliée aux mathématiques, pas à la philosophie. Il gagna l'admiration du logicien anglais Augustus De Morgan, qui publia Logique formelle la même année. Sur la base de ses publications, Boole fut nommé en 1849 professeur de mathématiques au Queen's College, dans le comté de Cork (aujourd'hui University College Cork), même s'il n'avait pas de diplôme universitaire. En 1854, il publie Une enquête sur les lois de la pensée, sur lesquelles sont fondées les théories mathématiques de la logique et des probabilités, qu'il considérait comme un énoncé mûr de ses idées. L'année suivante, il épousa Mary Everest, nièce de Sir George Everest, dont la montagne porte le nom. Les Boole ont eu cinq filles.

L'un des premiers Anglais à écrire sur la logique, Boole a souligné l'analogie entre les symboles algébriques et ceux qui peuvent représenter des formes logiques et des syllogismes, montrant comment les symboles de la quantité peuvent être séparés de ceux de l'opération. Avec Boole en 1847 et 1854 a commencé l'algèbre de la logique, ou ce qu'on appelle maintenant l'algèbre de Boole. La méthode symbolique générale originale et remarquable de Boole d'inférence logique, pleinement énoncée dans Lois de la pensée (1854), permet, étant donné toute proposition impliquant un nombre quelconque de termes, de tirer des conclusions qui sont logiquement contenues dans les prémisses. Le raisonnement abscons de Boole a conduit à des applications dont il n'a jamais rêvé - par exemple, la commutation téléphonique et les ordinateurs électroniques utilisent des chiffres binaires et des éléments logiques qui reposent sur la logique booléenne pour leur conception et leur fonctionnement. Il a également tenté une méthode générale des probabilités, qui permettrait à partir des probabilités données de tout système d'événements de déterminer la probabilité conséquente de tout autre événement logiquement lié aux événements donnés.

En 1857, Boole a été élu membre de la Royal Society. Les influents Un traité sur les équations différentielles parut en 1859 et fut suivi l'année suivante de sa suite, Un traité sur le calcul des différences finies. Utilisés comme manuels scolaires pendant de nombreuses années, ces ouvrages incarnent une élaboration des découvertes les plus importantes de Boole.

Boole a contracté une pneumonie après avoir marché cinq kilomètres de son domicile jusqu'au Queen's College lors d'une tempête de pluie le 24 novembre 1864. Il est décédé le 8 décembre.

Cet article a été récemment révisé et mis à jour par Erik Gregersen, rédacteur en chef.


Ma boîte de liens

Abdüsselam : ( 1926 - ) Pakistanlı Fizik Bilgini İlk nobel ödülü alan müslüman bilim adamı.

Ahmed Bin Musa : ( 10. yüzyıl ) Sistem mühendisliğinin Öncüsü. Astronom ve Mekanikçi.

Akşemseddin : ( 1389 - 1459 ) Pasteur'den önce Mikrobu bulan ilk bilim adamı. stanbulun fethinine manevi babasıdır. Fatih sultan Mehmet' à Hocasıdır

Ali Bin Abbas : ( ? - 994 ) 1000 sene önce ilk kanser ameliyatını yapan bilim adamı. Kılcal damar sitemini ilk defa ortaya atan bilim adamıdır. Eski çağın en büyük hekimlerinden olan hipokratesin (Hipokrat) Doğum olayı görüşünü kökünden yıktı.

Ali Bin İsa : ( 11. yüzyıl ) İlk defa göz hastalıkları hakkında eser veren müslüman bilim adamı.

Ali Bin Rıdvan : ( ? - 1067 ) Batıya tedavi metodlarını öğreten islam alimi.

Ali Kuşçu : ( ? - 1474 ) Ünlü Bir türk astronomi ve matematik bilginidir.

Ammar : ( 11 yüzyıl ) İlk katarak ameliyatını kendine a biçimde yapan müslüman bilim adamı.

Battani : ( 858 - 929 ) Dünyanın en meşhur 20 astrononumdan biri trigonometrinin mucidi, sinus ve kosinüs tabirlerini kullanan ilk bilgin.

Beyruni : ( 973 - 1051 ) Dünyanın döndüğünü ilk bulan bilim adamı ümit burnu, amerika ve japonyanın varlığından bahseden ilk bilim adamı. Beyruni amerika kıtasının varlığını kristof colomb'un Keşfinden 500 sene önce bildirmiştir. Matematik, Jeoloji, Coğrafya, Tıp, Felsefe, Fizik, Astronomi gibi dallarda eserler yazmıştır. Çağın En Büyük Alimidir.

Bitruci : ( 13. yüzyıl ) Kopernik'e yol açan öncülük eden astronom bilim adamı.

Cabir Bin Eflah : ( 12. yüzyıl ) Ortaçağın büyük matematik ve astronom bilginidir . Çubuklu güneş saatini bulan ilk bilim adamıdır.

Cabir Bin Hayyan : ( 721 - 805) Atom bombası fikrinin ilk mucidi ve kimyanın babası sayılır. Maddenin en Küçük parçası atomun parçalana bileciğini bundan 1200 sene önce söylemiştir.

Cahiz : ( 776 - 869 ) Zooloji İlminin öncülerindendir. Hayvan gübresinden amonyak elde etmiştir.

Cezeri : ( 1136 - 1206 ) İlk sistem mühendisi ve ilk sibernetikçi ve elektronikçi Bilgisayarın babası oysa bilgisayarın babası yanlış olarak ingiliz matematikçisi Charles Babbage olarak bilinir..

Demiri : ( 1349 - 1405 ) Avrupalılardan 400 yıl önce ilk zooloji ansiklopedisini yazan alimdir . Hayatül hayavan isimli kitabı yazmıştır.

Dinaveri : ( 815 - 895 ) Botanikçi Ve astronom bir alim olarak bilinir.

Ebu Kamil Şuca : ( ? - 951 ) Avrupaya matematiği öğreten islam bilgini.

Ebu'l Fida : ( 1271 - 1331 ) Büyük Bir bilgin tarihçi ve coğrafyacıdır.

Ebu'l Vefa : ( 940 - 998) Matematik ve Astronomi bilginidir trigonometriye tanjant, kotanjant, sekant ve kosekantı kazandıran matematik bilginidir.

Ebu Maşer : ( 785 - 886 ) Med-cezir olayını (gel-git) ilk keşfeden bilgindir.

Evliya Çelebi : ( 1611 - 1682 ) Büyük Türk seyyahı ve meşhur seyahatnamenin yazarıdır.

Farabi : ( 870 - 950 ) Ses olayını ilk defa fiziki yönden ele alıp açıklayıp izah getiren ilk bilgindir.

Fatih Sultan Mehmet : ( 1432 - 1481 ) İstanbulu feth eden ve Havan topunu icad eden yivli topları döktüren padişahtır fatihin kendi icadı olan ve adı "şahi" olan topların ağırlığıraki updan ve a bakılari 1 mille öküz ve 700 asker ancak çekebiliyordu..

Fergani : ( 9. yüzyıl ) Ekliptik meyli ilk defa tesbit eden astronomi alimi.

Gıyasüddin Cemşid : ( ? - 1429 ) Matematik alimi. Ondalık kesir sistemini bulan çemşid cebir ve astronomi alimi.

Harizmi : ( 780 - 850 ) İlk cebir kitabını yazan ve batıya cebiri öğreten bilgin. Adı algoritmaya isim oldu rakamları Avrupa' ya öğreten bilgin. Cebiri sistemleştiren Bilgin.

Hasan Bin Musa : ( - ) Dünyanın çevresini ölçen, üç kardeşler olarak bilinen üç kardeşten biri..

Hazini : ( 6 - 7 yüzyıl ) Yerçekimi ve terazilerle ilgili izahlarda bulunan bilgin.

Hazerfen Ahmed Çelebi : ( 17. yüzyıl ) Havada uçan ilk Türk. Planörcülüğün öncüsü.

Huneyn Bin Ishak : ( 809 - 873 ) Göz doktorlarına öncülük yapan bilgin.

İbni Avvam : ( 8. yüzyıl ) Tarım alanında ortaçağ boyunca kendini kabul ettiren bilgin.

bni Battuta : ( 1304 - 1369 ) Ülke ülke , kıta kıta dolaşan büyük bir seyyah.

İbni Baytar : ( 1190 - 1248 ) Ortaçağın en büyük botanikçisi ve eczacısıdır.

İbni Cessar : ( ? - 1009 ) Cüzzam hastalığının sebeb ve tedavilerini 900 sene önce açıklayan müslüman doktor.

İbni Ebi Useybia : ( 1203 - 1270 ) Tıp Tarihi hakkında eşsiz bir eser veren doktor.

İbni Fazıl : ( 739 - 805) 12 asır önce ilk kağıt fabrikasını kuran vezir.

İbni Firnas : ( ? - 888 ) Wright kardeşlerden önce 1000 sene önce ilk uçağı yapıp uçmayı gerçekleştiren alim.

bni Haldun : ( 1332 - 1406 ) Tarihi ilim haline getiren sosyolojiyi kuran mütefekkir. Psikolojiyi tarihe uygulamış, acabit defa tarih felsefesi yapan büyük bir islam tarihçisidir. Sosyolog ve ehircilik uzmanı.

İbni Hatip : ( 1313 - 1374 ) Vebanın bulaşıcı hastalık olduğunu ilmi yoldan açıklayan doktor.

İbni Havkal : ( 10. yüzyıl ) 10 asır önce ilmi değeri yüksek bir coğrafya kitabı yazan alim.

İbni Heysem : ( 965 - 1051 ) Optik ilminin kurucusu büyük fizikçi. slam dünyasının en büyük fizikçisi, batılı bilginlerin öncüsü, göz ve görme sistemlerine açıklık kazandıran alim. Galile teleskopunun arkasındaki isim.

İbni Karaka : ( ? - 1100 ) Dokuzyüz yıl önce torna tezgahı yapan bilgin.

İbni Macit : ( 15. yüzyıl ) nlü bir denizci ve coğrafyacı. Vasco da Gama onun bilgilerinden ve rehberliğinden istifade ederek hindistana ulaştı.

İbni Rüşd : ( 1126 - 1198 ) Büyük bir doktor, astronom ve matematikçidir.

İbni Sina : ( 980 - 1037 ) Doktorların sultanı. Eserleri Avrupa üniversitelerinde 600 sene temel kitap olarak okutulan dahi doktor. Hastalık yayan küçük organizmalar, civa ile tedavi, pastör' e ışık tutması, ilaç bilim ustası, dış belirtilere dayanarak teşhis koyma, botanik ve zooloji ile ilgilendi, Fizikle ilgilendi, jeoloji ilminin babası.

bni Türk : ( 9. yüzyıl ) Cebirin temelini atan islam bilgini.

İbni Yunus : ( ? - 1009 ) Galile'den önce sarkacı bulan astronom.

İbni Zuhr : ( 1091 - 1162 ) Endülüsün en büyük müslüman doktorlarından asırlarca Avrupa'da eserleri ders kitabı olarak okutuldu.

İbnünnefis : ( 1210 - 1288 ) Küçük kan dolaşımını bulan ünlü islam alimi.

İbrahim Efendi : ( 18. yüzyıl )Osmanlılarda ilk denizaltıyı gerçekleştiren mühendis.

İbrahim Hakkı : ( 1703 - 1780 ) Büyük bir sosyolog, psikolog, astronom ve fen adamı. En ünlü eseri marifetnâme, Burçlardan, insan fizyoloji ve anatomisinden bahsetmiştir.

İdrisi : ( 1100 - 1166 ) Yedi asır önce bügünküne çok benzeyen dünya haritasını çizen coğrafyacı.

İhvanü-s Safa : ( 10. yüzyıl ) çeşitli ilim dallarını içine alan 52 kitaptan meydana gelen bir ansiklopedi yazan ilim adamı. Astronomi , Coğrafya, Musiki, Ahlâk, Felfese kitapları yazmıştır.

smail Gelenbevi : ( 1730 - 1791 ) 18 yüzyılda osmanlıların en güçlü matematikçilerinden.

İstahri : ( 10. yüzyıl ) Minyatürlü coğrafya kitabı yazan bilgin.

Kadızade Rumi : ( 1337 - 1430 ) Çağını aşan büyük bir matematikçi ve astronomi bilgini. Osmanlının ve Türklerin ilk astronomudur.

Kambur Vesim : ( ? - 1761 ) Verem mikrobunu Robert Koch'dan 150 sene önce keşfeden ünlü doktor.

Katip Çelebi : ( 1609 - 1657 ) Osmalılarda rönesansın müjdecisi coğrafyacı ve fikir adamı.

Kazvini : ( 1203 - 1283 ) Ortaçağın Herodot'u müslümanların Plinius'u , astronom ve coğrafyacı bilgin.

Kemaleddin Farisi : ( ? - 1320 ) İbni Heysem ayarında büyük islam matematikçisi, fizikçi ve astronom.

Kerhi : ( ? - 1029 ) slam Matematikçilerinden.

Kindi : ( 803 - 872 ) bni Heysem'e kadar optikle ilgili eserleri kaynak olan bilgin. Fizik, felsefe ve matematik alanında yaptığı hizmetleri ile tanınmıştır.

Kurşunoğlu Behram : ( 1922 - ? ) Genelleştirilmiş izafiyet teorisini ortaya atan beyin güçlerimizden. Halen prof. Behram Kurşunoğlu Amerika da florida üniversitesinde teorik fizik merkezinde başkanlık yapmaktadır.

Lagarî Hasan Çelebi : ( 17. yüzyıl ) Füzeciliğin atası, osmanlılarda ilk defa füze ile uçan bilgin.


Macriti : ( ? - 1007 ) Matematikte başkan kabul edilen Endülüslü Matematikçi ve astronom.

Mağribi : (16. yüzyıl) Çağının en büyük matematikçilerinden. Mağribinin eseri olan Tuhfetü'l Ada isimli kitabında üçgen, dörtgen, daire ve diğer geometrik şekillerinin yüz ölçümlerini bulmak için metodlar gösterilmiştir.

Maaşallah : ( ? - 815 ) Meşhur islam astronomlarındandır. Usturlabla lgili ilk eseri veren bilgindir.

Mes'ûdi : ( ? - 956 ) Kıymeti ancak 18. 19. Yüzyıllarda anlaşılan büyük tarihçi ve coğrafyacı. Mesudi günümüzden 1000 sene önce depremlerin oluş sebebini açıklamıştır. Mesûdinin eserlerinden yel değirmenlerinin de müslümanların icadı olduğu anlaşılmıştır.

Mimar Sinan : ( 1489 - 1588 ) Seviyesine bugün dahi ulaşılamayan dahi mimar. Mimar Sinan tam manası ile bir sanat dahisidir.

Muhammed Bin Musa : ( 9. yüzyıl ) Dünyanın Çevresini ölçen 3 kardeşten biri. Matematikçi ve astronom.

Mürsiyeli İbrahim : ( 15. yüzyıl ) Piri reisten 52 sene önce bugünkü uygun Akdeniz haritasını çizen haritacı. Günümüzden 500 sene önce kadar önce yaşamıştır.

Nasirüddin Tusi : ( 1201 - 1274 ) Trigonometri sahasında ilk defa eser veren, Merağa rasathanesini kuran, matematikçi ve astronom.

Necmeddinü-l Mısri : ( 13 yüzyıl ) Çağının ünlü astronomlarından.

Ömer Hayyam : ( ? - 1123 ) Cebirdeki binom formülünü bulan bilgin. Newton veya binom formülünün keşfi ömer hayyama aittir.

Piri Reis : ( 1465 - 1554 ) 400 sene önce bu günküne çok yakın dünya haritasını çizen büyük coğrafyacı. Amerika kıtasının varlığını kristof kolomb 'dan önce bilen ünlü denizci.

Razi : ( 864 - 925 ) Keşifleri ile ün salan asırlar boyunca Avrupa'ya ders veren kimyager doktor ünlü klinikçi. Devrinin En büyük bilgini İbni Sina ile aynı ayarda bir bilgin.

Sabit Bin Kurra : ( ? - 901 ) Newton' dan çok önce diferansiyel hesabını keşfeden bilgin. Dünyanın çapını doğru olarak hesaplayan acabit islam bilgini. Matemetik ve astronomi alimi.

Sabuncu Oğlu Şerefeddin : ( 1386 - 1470 ) Fatih devrinin ünlü doktor ve cerrahlarındandır. Deneysel fizyolojinin öncülerindendir.

Seydi Ali Reis : ( ? - 1562 ) nlü bir denizci, matematik ve astronomi alimidir.

Şemsettin Halili : ( ? - 1397 ) Büyük bir astronomi bilginidir.

Şihabettin Karafi : ( ? - 1285 ) orta çağın en büyük fizikçi ve hukukçularından.

Takiyyüddin Er Rasit : ( 1521 - 1585 ) İstanbul rasathanesi ilk kuran çağından çok ileride asrın önde gelen astronomi alimidir.

Uluğ Bey : ( 1394 -1449 ) Çağının en büyük astronomu ve trigonometride yeni çığır açan ünlü bir alim ve hükümdar.

Zehravi : ( 936 -1013 ) 1000 sene önce ilk çağdaş ameliyatı yapan böbrek taşlarının nasıl çıkarılacağını ve ilk böbrek ameliyatını gerçekleştiren bilim adamı..

Zerkali : ( 1029 - 1087 ) Keşif ve hizmetleri ile ün salmış astronomi alimidir.


Faits sur l'Americans with Disabilities Act

Le titre I de l'Americans with Disabilities Act de 1990 interdit aux employeurs privés, aux gouvernements étatiques et locaux, aux agences pour l'emploi et aux syndicats de discriminer les personnes handicapées qualifiées dans les procédures de candidature, l'embauche, le licenciement, l'avancement, la rémunération, la formation professionnelle et d'autres termes , conditions et privilèges d'emploi. L'ADA couvre les employeurs de 15 employés ou plus, y compris les gouvernements étatiques et locaux. Elle s'applique également aux agences pour l'emploi et aux organisations syndicales. Les normes de non-discrimination de l'ADA s'appliquent également aux employés du secteur fédéral en vertu de l'article 501 de la loi sur la réadaptation, telle que modifiée, et de ses règles d'application.

Une personne handicapée est une personne qui :

  • A une déficience physique ou mentale qui limite considérablement une ou plusieurs activités majeures de la vie
  • A un dossier d'une telle déficience ou
  • Est considéré comme ayant une telle déficience.

Un employé qualifié ou un candidat handicapé est une personne qui, avec ou sans aménagement raisonnable, peut remplir les fonctions essentielles de l'emploi en question. Les aménagements raisonnables peuvent inclure, sans s'y limiter :

  • Rendre les installations existantes utilisées par les employés facilement accessibles et utilisables par les personnes handicapées.
  • Restructuration d'emploi, modification des horaires de travail, réaffectation à un poste vacant
  • Acquérir ou modifier des équipements ou des dispositifs, ajuster ou modifier des examens, du matériel de formation ou des politiques, et fournir des lecteurs ou des interprètes qualifiés.

Un employeur est tenu de faire un aménagement raisonnable au handicap connu d'un candidat ou d'un employé qualifié s'il n'imposerait pas une « contrainte excessive » à l'exploitation de l'entreprise de l'employeur. Les aménagements raisonnables sont des ajustements ou des modifications fournis par un employeur pour permettre aux personnes handicapées de bénéficier d'opportunités d'emploi égales. Les mesures d'adaptation varient selon les besoins du demandeur ou de l'employé. Toutes les personnes handicapées (ou même toutes les personnes ayant le même handicap) n'auront pas besoin du même aménagement. Par exemple:

  • Un candidat sourd peut avoir besoin d'un interprète en langue des signes lors de l'entretien d'embauche.
  • Un employé diabétique peut avoir besoin de pauses régulières pendant la journée de travail pour bien manger et surveiller sa glycémie et son taux d'insuline.
  • Un employé aveugle peut avoir besoin de quelqu'un pour lire les informations affichées sur un babillard.
  • Un employé atteint d'un cancer peut avoir besoin d'un congé pour subir des traitements de radiothérapie ou de chimiothérapie.

Un employeur n'est pas tenu de fournir un aménagement raisonnable s'il impose une « contrainte excessive ». Une contrainte excessive est définie comme une action nécessitant des difficultés ou des dépenses importantes lorsqu'elle est considérée à la lumière de facteurs tels que la taille d'un employeur, ses ressources financières et la nature et la structure de ses opérations.

Un employeur n'est pas tenu d'abaisser les normes de qualité ou de production pour faire un accommodement et il n'est pas non plus obligé de fournir des articles à usage personnel tels que des lunettes ou des appareils auditifs.

Un employeur n'est généralement pas tenu de fournir un aménagement raisonnable à moins qu'une personne handicapée n'en ait demandé un. si un employeur croit qu'une condition médicale cause un problème de performance ou de conduite, il peut demander à l'employé comment résoudre le problème et si l'employé a besoin d'un aménagement raisonnable. Une fois qu'un aménagement raisonnable est demandé, l'employeur et l'individu doivent discuter des besoins de l'individu et identifier l'aménagement raisonnable approprié. Lorsque plus d'un logement fonctionnerait, l'employeur peut choisir celui qui est le moins coûteux ou le plus facile à fournir.

Le titre I de l'ADA couvre également :

    Examens médicaux et demandes de renseignements
    Les employeurs ne peuvent pas interroger les candidats sur l'existence, la nature ou la gravité d'un handicap. Les candidats peuvent être interrogés sur leur capacité à exercer des fonctions spécifiques. Une offre d'emploi peut être conditionnée aux résultats d'un examen médical, mais seulement si l'examen est requis pour tous les employés entrants dans des emplois similaires. Les examens médicaux des employés doivent être liés à l'emploi et conformes aux besoins commerciaux de l'employeur.

Il est également illégal d'exercer des représailles contre un individu pour s'être opposé à des pratiques d'emploi discriminatoires fondées sur le handicap ou pour avoir déposé une accusation de discrimination, témoigné ou participé de quelque manière que ce soit à une enquête, une procédure ou un litige en vertu de l'ADA.

Incitations fiscales fédérales pour encourager l'emploi des personnes handicapées et promouvoir l'accessibilité des logements publics


Définition du handicap

En vertu de la plupart des lois sur l'emploi, telles que la loi sur la discrimination fondée sur l'âge dans l'emploi ou le titre VII, il est assez évident qu'une personne fait partie d'une catégorie protégée. Cependant, en vertu de l'ADA, il est un peu plus compliqué de déterminer si une personne fait partie d'une catégorie protégée.

L'ADA a une définition du handicap en trois volets. Si l'un des trois volets est satisfait, l'individu compte comme handicapé. La définition du handicap de l'ADA est basée sur la définition du « handicap » de la Rehabilitation Act. Un jugement en vertu de la Rehabilitation Act ou de l'ADA est considéré comme un précédent pour l'autre.

La première définition du handicap de l'ADA stipule qu'une personne handicapée est une personne qui a une déficience mentale ou physique qui l'empêche de participer aux principales activités de la vie. Si une personne a un dossier ou des antécédents d'une telle déficience, elle est considérée comme invalide. Enfin, si l'individu est considéré comme ayant une déficience mentale ou physique, l'individu est considéré comme handicapé selon la première définition du handicap de l'ADA.

L'ADA définit une déficience physique comme un trouble ou une condition physiologique, une perte anatomique ou une défiguration esthétique qui affecte un ou plusieurs de ces systèmes corporels :

  • Neurologique
  • Organes des sens spéciaux
  • Musculo-squelettique
  • Digestif
  • Cardiovasculaire
  • Respiratoire
  • Reproducteur
  • Hémique et lymphatique
  • Endocrine
  • Peau
  • génito-urinaire

L'ADA définit une déficience mentale comme tout trouble psychologique ou mental, tel qu'une maladie émotionnelle ou mentale, un retard mental, un syndrome cérébral organique et des troubles d'apprentissage. La U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission et les règlements de l'ADA n'offrent pas une liste de toutes les conditions spécifiques qui sont considérées comme des déficiences, car il est difficile d'être exhaustif. De plus, il sera difficile d'inclure de nouveaux troubles qui pourraient se développer à l'avenir.

L'ADA a inclus des exemples de déficiences mentales et physiques couvertes. Certaines de ces déficiences comprennent :

  • Dystrophie musculaire
  • Troubles orthopédiques, de la parole et de l'audition
  • Déficiences visuelles
  • Cardiopathie
  • Épilepsie
  • Infirmité motrice cérébrale
  • Retard mental
  • La toxicomanie
  • VIH
  • Troubles d'apprentissage spécifiques
  • Diabète

Le cancer, la sclérose en plaques et d'autres déficiences graves ne sont pas considérés comme des handicaps.

En vertu de l'ADA, une déficience doit être un trouble physiologique ou mental. La dépression, le stress et des conditions similaires ne sont que parfois considérés comme des déficiences en vertu de l'ADA. Que la dépression et le stress soient considérés comme des déficiences dépend s'ils résultent d'un trouble mental ou physiologique documenté ou s'ils résultent de la vie personnelle ou des pressions professionnelles. La déficience doit limiter substantiellement au moins une activité majeure de la vie.

Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus sur la liste des handicaps couverts par l'ADA, vous pouvez publier votre besoin juridique sur le marché d'UpCounsel. UpCounsel n'accepte que les 5% des meilleurs avocats sur son site. Les avocats d'UpCounsel sont issus de facultés de droit telles que Harvard Law et Yale Law et ont en moyenne 14 ans d'expérience juridique, notamment en travaillant avec ou pour le compte d'entreprises comme Google, Menlo Ventures et Airbnb.


CIRCONSTANCES MALCHANCEUSES

En octobre 1891, deux ans avant le foyer pour orphelins de Warm Springs, le homme d'État a rapporté la tragédie que «six enfants malheureux avaient été jetés sur le comté». Les six, appelés les enfants Jewett, avaient été découverts dans la misère parmi les passagers de l'Iowa et du Montana dans un bidonville boueux près de Five Mile Road. Leur mère avait abandonné son mari et s'était enfuie avec son beau-frère.

Trois autres personnes envoyées à la pauvre ferme ce même octobre étaient les enfants Neal d'Arnold Addition de North End. Elvira Neal, 3 ans, avait été découverte avec deux jeunes frères et sœurs, endormis sur un canapé souillé. Leur mère a été dénoncée comme « dépravée » de leur père, un prisonnier « à moitié fou » à la prison du comté.

Dans le service des femmes, pendant ce temps, une jeune mère nommée Rose Storms s'occupait de sa petite fille. Depuis le Minnesota, Storms avait pris le train pour Boise pour attendre un prétendant qui n'est jamais arrivé. Storms et l'enfant ont rejoint 23 autres personnes à la ferme pauvre d'Ada. Un homme âgé aurait été un manifestant dans "l'armée" de Jacob Coxey, une marche en lambeaux de chômeurs sur le Capitole des États-Unis. Un autre était Cornelius Sproule de Nampa, qui était soupçonné d'être fou.


L'histoire de la loi sur les Américains handicapés

L'histoire de l'ADA n'a pas commencé le 26 juillet 1990 lors de la cérémonie de signature à la Maison Blanche. Cela n'a pas commencé en 1988 lorsque la première ADA a été présentée au Congrès. L'histoire d'ADA a commencé il y a longtemps dans des villes et des villages à travers les États-Unis lorsque les personnes handicapées ont commencé à défier les barrières sociétales qui les excluaient de leurs communautés, et lorsque les parents d'enfants handicapés ont commencé à lutter contre l'exclusion et la ségrégation de leurs enfants. . Cela a commencé avec la création de groupes locaux pour défendre les droits des personnes handicapées. Cela a commencé avec la création du mouvement de vie autonome qui a remis en question l'idée que les personnes handicapées devaient être institutionnalisées, et qui s'est battu pour et a fourni des services aux personnes handicapées pour vivre dans la communauté.

L'ADA doit son droit de naissance non à une seule personne, ou à quelques-uns, mais aux milliers de personnes qui composent le mouvement pour les droits des personnes handicapées - des personnes qui ont travaillé pendant des années à organiser et à assister à des manifestations, à lécher des enveloppes, à envoyer des alertes, rédiger des lois, parler, témoigner, négocier, faire du lobbying, intenter des poursuites, être arrêtés, faire tout ce qu'ils pouvaient pour une cause en laquelle ils croyaient. Il y a beaucoup trop de gens dont l'engagement et le travail acharné ont contribué à l'adoption de cette pièce historique de la législation sur les droits civiques des personnes handicapées pour pouvoir attribuer le crédit approprié par leur nom. Sans le travail de tant de – sans le mouvement pour les droits des personnes handicapées – il n'y aurait pas d'ADA.

Le mouvement pour les droits des personnes handicapées, au cours des deux dernières décennies, a rendu les injustices subies par les personnes handicapées visibles pour le public américain et les politiciens. Cela nécessitait de renverser l'histoire séculaire de « hors de vue, hors de l'esprit » que la ségrégation des personnes handicapées servait à promouvoir. Le mouvement des droits des personnes handicapées a adopté plusieurs des stratégies des mouvements des droits civiques avant lui.

Comme les Afro-Américains qui se sont assis dans des comptoirs-repas séparés et ont refusé de se déplacer à l'arrière du bus, les personnes handicapées se sont assises dans des bâtiments fédéraux, ont entravé la circulation des bus inaccessibles et ont défilé dans les rues pour protester contre l'injustice. Et comme les mouvements des droits civiques avant lui, le mouvement des droits des personnes handicapées a demandé justice devant les tribunaux et dans les salles du Congrès.

D'un point de vue juridique, un changement profond et historique dans la politique publique du handicap s'est produit en 1973 avec l'adoption de l'article 504 de la loi de 1973 sur la réadaptation. L'article 504, qui interdisait la discrimination fondée sur le handicap par les bénéficiaires de fonds fédéraux, s'inspirait des lois précédentes qui interdisaient la discrimination fondée sur la race, l'origine ethnique et le sexe par les bénéficiaires de fonds fédéraux.

Pour la première fois, l'exclusion et la ségrégation des personnes handicapées ont été considérées comme une discrimination. Auparavant, on supposait que les problèmes rencontrés par les personnes handicapées, tels que le chômage et le manque d'éducation, étaient des conséquences inévitables des limitations physiques ou mentales imposées par le handicap lui-même. L'adoption de l'article 504 a démontré que le Congrès a reconnu que le statut social et économique inférieur des personnes handicapées n'était pas une conséquence du handicap lui-même, mais plutôt le résultat de barrières et de préjugés sociétaux. Comme pour les minorités raciales et les femmes, le Congrès a reconnu qu'une législation était nécessaire pour éliminer les politiques et pratiques discriminatoires.

L'article 504 était également historique car, pour la première fois, les personnes handicapées étaient considérées comme une classe et un groupe minoritaire. Auparavant, la politique publique se caractérisait par la prise en compte des besoins de handicaps particuliers par catégorie en fonction du diagnostic. Chaque groupe de handicaps était considéré comme séparé, avec des besoins différents. L'article 504 reconnaissait que bien qu'il existe des variations physiques et mentales majeures dans les différents handicaps, les personnes handicapées en tant que groupe étaient confrontées à une discrimination similaire dans l'emploi, l'éducation et l'accès à la société. Les personnes handicapées étaient considérées comme une minorité légitime, sujette à la discrimination et méritant les protections fondamentales des droits civils. Ce concept de « statut de classe » a été essentiel dans le développement du mouvement et les efforts de plaidoyer. La coalition des personnes handicapées a été constamment mise à l'épreuve par des tentatives visant à supprimer les protections de certains groupes. L'histoire de l'ADA témoigne de l'engagement du mouvement envers la solidarité entre les personnes handicapées.

After Section 504 established the fundamental civil right of non-discrimination in 1973, the next step was to define what non-discrimination meant in the context of disability. How was it the same or different from race and sex discrimination? The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) had been given the task of promulgating regulations to implement Section 504, which would serve as guidelines for all other federal agencies. These regulations became the focus of attention for the disability rights movement for the next four years. During this time the movement grew in sophistication, skill and visibility. The first task was to assure that the regulations provided meaningful anti-discrimination protections. It was not enough to remove policy barriers – it was imperative that the regulations mandated affirmative conduct to remove architectural and communication barriers and provide accommodations.

The second step was to force a recalcitrant agency to get the regulations out. All over the country people with disabilities sat-in at HEW buildings. The longest sit-in was in San Francisco, lasting 28 days. A lawsuit was filed, hearings before Congress were organized, testimony was delivered to Congressional committees, negotiations were held, letters were written. The disability community mobilized a successful campaign using a variety of strategies, and on May 4, 1977 the Section 504 regulations were issued. It is these regulations which form the basis of the ADA. In the early 1980’s the disability community was called upon to defend the hard-fought-for Section 504 regulations from attack. After taking office President Reagan established the Task Force on Regulatory Relief under the leadership of then Vice President George Bush. The mission of the Task Force was to “de-regulate” regulations which were burdensome on businesses. The Section 504 regulations were chosen for “de-regulation.” This news sent a current throughout the disability movement across the country, which quickly mobilized a multi-tier strategy to preserve the regulations.

For two years, representatives from the disability community met with Administration officials to explain why all of the various de-regulation proposals must not be adopted. These high level meetings would not have continued or been successful without the constant bombardment of letters to the White House from people with disabilities and parents of children with disabilities around the country protesting any attempt to de-regulate Section 504.

After a remarkable show of force and commitment by the disability community, the Administration announced a halt to all attempts to de-regulate Section 504. This was a tremendous victory for the disability movement. Those two years proved to be invaluable in setting the stage for the ADA. Not only were the Section 504 regulations, which form the basis of the ADA, preserved, but it was at this time that high officials of what later became the Bush administration received an education on the importance of the concepts of non-discrimination contained in the Section 504 regulations in the lives of people with disabilities.

During much of the 1980’s, the disability community’s efforts in Washington were focused on reinstating civil rights protections which had been stripped away by negative Supreme Court decisions. The longest legislative battle was fought over the Civil Rights Restoration Act (CRRA), first introduced in 1984 and finally passed in 1988. The CRRA sought to overturn Grove City College v Bell, a Supreme Court decision that had significantly restricted the reach of all the statutes prohibiting race, ethnic origin, sex or disability discrimination by recipients of federal fund. Because the court decision affected all of these constituencies, the effort to overturn the decision required a coalition effort. For the first time, representatives of the disability community worked in leadership role s with representatives of minority and woman’s groups on a major piece of civil rights legislation.

Working in coalition again, in 1988, the civil rights community amended the Fair Housing Act (FHA) to improve enforcement mechanisms, and for the first time disability anti-discrimination provisions were included in a traditional civil rights statute banning race discrimination. During these years working on the CRRA and the FHA, alliances were forged within the civil rights community that became critical in the fight for passage of the ADA. Because of its commitment to disability civil rights, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights played an important leadership role in securing passage of the ADA.

During the 1980’s, it also became clear to the disability community that it should play a very active role in Supreme Court litigation under Section 504. The first Section 504 case which was decided by the Supreme Court in 1979, Southeastern Community College v. Davis, 442 U.S.397, revealed at best, a lack of understanding, and at worst, a hostility toward even applying the concept of discrimination to exclusion based on disability. In that case, a hearing impaired women was seeking admission to the nursing program of Southeastern Community College. The court found that Ms. Davis’s hearing impairment rendered her unqualified to participate in the program because she would not be able to fully fulfill all of the clinical requirements. However, the Court did not limit itself to the fate= of Ms. Davis, but included within the decision several very broad negative interpretations of Section 504. In fact, the Davis’s decision cast doubt on whether those entities covered by Section 504 would be required to take any affirmative steps to accommodate the needs of persons with disabilities. Contrary to established Court doctrine, the Section 504 regulations that had been issued by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) were given little deference by the Court. Ironically the Court attributed this lack of deference to the fact that HEW had been recalcitrant in issuing the regulations.

After the Davis decision it was clear that the Supreme Court needed to be educated on the issue of disability based discrimination and the role that it plays in people lives. Moreover, it was clear to the disability community that the focus of its efforts in any future Supreme Court litigation must be to reinforce the validity of the 1977 HEW regulations. In the next case to be granted review by the Supreme Court, Consolidated Rail Corporation v. Darrone, 465 U.S.624(1984), the disability community focused its efforts on educating the Court and bolstering the validity of the HEW Regulations interpreting Section 504. The issue in Consolidated Rail Corporations was whether employment discrimination was covered by the anti-discrimination provisions of Section 504. In order to educate the court on the pervasive role of discrimination in the un-employment and under-employment of persons with disabilities, the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund filed an amicus brief on behalf of 63 national, state and local organizations dedicated to securing the civil rights of persons with disabilities. This amicus brief served not only to educate the courts on discriminatory employment policies and practices, but also to demonstrate to the Court that these issues concern the millions of Americans who were affiliated with the organizations who filed the brief. DREDF also worked very closely with the lawyer representing the disabled person in the lawsuit in order to present to the court the very best legal arguments on the validity of the 1977 HEW regulations which had found that employment discrimination was covered by provision of Section 504. The decision in Consolidated Rail Corporation v. Darrone marked a significant victory for the disability rights community. The court found that employment discrimination was in fact prohibited by Section 504, but equally importantly the Court found that the regulations issued in 1977 by HEW were entitled to great deference by the courts. It is these regulations which were elevated by the Court in Consolidated Rail Corporation which formed the basis of the ADA.

The disability community continued its active involvement in Section 504 cases in the Supreme Court throughout the 1980’s. In 1987, the Court was presented with the issue of whether people with contagious diseases are covered by Section 504. Although the case involved a women with tuberculosis, it became clear through out the country that and the court’s decision in this case would be critical for protection against discrimination by people with HIV infection. The disability rights community worked closely with the lawyers representing the woman with tuberculous as well as filing numerous amicus briefs in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court’s decision in School Board of Nassau County v. Arline, 480 U.S.273,(1987), became the foundation for coverage of people with AIDS under Section 504 and the ADA. Working on the Arline case also provided a critical opportunity for lawyers in the disability rights community and lawyers in the AIDS community to work closely together and form alliances that would carry through and prove to be critical in the battle to secure passage of the ADA.

During the 1980’s the disability community was also successful in overturning by legislation several disability – specific negative Supreme Court rulings. Legislation was passed to reinstate the coverage of anti-discrimination provisions to all airlines, the right to sue states for violations of Section 504, and the right of parents to recover attorney fees under the Education for Handicapped Children’s Act (now called IDEA). These legislative victories further advanced the reputation of the disability community and its advocates in Congress. The respect for the legal, organizing, and negotiations skills gained during these legislative efforts formed the basis of the working relationships with members of Congress and officials of the Administration, that proved indispensable in passing the ADA. Whether by friend or foe, the disability community was taken seriously – it had become a political force to be contended with in Congress, in the voting booth, and in the media.

The ADA, as we know it today, went through numerous drafts, revisions, negotiations, and amendments since the first version was introduced in 1988. Spurred by a draft bill prepared by the National Council on Disability, an independent federal agency whose members were appointed by President Reagan, Senator Weicker and Representative Coelho introduced the first version of the ADA in April 1988 in the 100th Congress.

The disability community began to educate people with disabilities about the ADA and to gather evidence to support the need for broad anti-discrimination protections. A national campaign was initiated to write “discrimination diaries.” People with disabilities were asked to document daily instances of inaccessibility and discrimination. The diaries served not only as testimonials of discrimination, but also to raise consciousness about the barriers to daily living which were simply tolerated as a part of life. Justin Dart, Chair of the Congressional Task Force on the Rights and Empowerment of People with Disabilities, traversed the country holding public hearings which were attended by thousands of people with disabilities, friends, and families documenting the injustice of discrimination in the lives of people with disabilities.

In September 1988, a joint hearing was held before the Senate Subcommittee on Disability Policy and the House Subcommittee on Select Education. Witnesses with a wide variety of disabilities, such as blindness, deafness, Down’s Syndrome and HIV infection, as well as parents of disabled children testified about architectural and communication barriers and the pervasiveness of stereotyping and prejudice. A room which seated over 700 people overflowed with persons with disabilities, parents and advocates. After the hearing, a commitment was made by Senator Kennedy, Chair of the Labor and Human Resources Committee, Senator Harkin, Chair of the Subcommittee on Disability Policy, and Representative Owens of the House Subcommittee on Select Education, that a comprehensive disability civil rights bill would be a top priority for the next Congress. At the same time, both presidential candidates, Vice President Bush and Governor Dukakis, endorsed broad civil rights protections for people with disabilities. The disability community was determined to assure that President Bush would make good on his campaign promise, and reinvoked it repeatedly during the legislative process.

On May 9, 1989 Senators Harkin and Durrenberger and Representatives Coelho and Fish jointly introduced the new ADA in the 101st Congress. From that moment, the disability community mobilized, organizing a multi-layered strategy for passage. A huge coalition was assembled by the Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities (CCD), which included disability organizations, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR), and an array of religious, labor and civic organizations.

A team of lawyers and advocates worked on drafting and on the various and complex legal issues that were continually arising top level negotiators and policy analysts strategized with members of Congress and their staffs disability organizations informed and rallied their members a lobbying system was developed using members of the disability community from around the country witnesses came in from all over the country to testify before Congressional committees lawyers and others prepared written answers to the hundreds of questions posed by members of Congress and by businesses task forces were formed networks were established to evoke responses from the community by telephone or mail protests were planned – the disability rights movement coalesced around this goal: passage of the ADA. From the beginning the “class” concept prevailed – groups representing specific disabilities and specialized issues vowed to work on all of the issues affecting all persons with disabilities. This commitment was constantly put to the test. The disability community as a whole resisted any proposals made by various members of Congress to exclude people with AIDS or mental illness or to otherwise narrow the class of people covered. Even at the eleventh hour, after two years of endless work and a Senate and House vote in favor of the Act, the disability community held fast with the AIDS community to eliminate an amendment which would have excluded food-handlers with AIDS, running the risk of indefinitely postponing the passage or even losing the bill. Likewise, all of the groups, whether it was an issue particularly affecting their constituencies or not, held fast against amendments to water down the transportation provisions. The underlying principle of the ADA was to extend the basic civil rights protections extended to minorities and women to people with disabilities. The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited employment discrimination by the private sector against women and racial and ethnic minorities, and banned discrimination against minorities in public accommodations. Before the ADA, no federal law prohibited private sector discrimination against people with disabilities, absent a federal grant or contract.

The job of the disability rights movement during the ADA legislative process was to demonstrate to Congress and the American people the need for comprehensive civil rights protections to eradicate fundamental injustice -to demonstrate not only how this injustice harms the individual subjected to it, but also how it harms our society.

The first hearing in the 101st Senate on the new ADA was an historic event and set the tone for future hearings and lobbying efforts. It was kicked off by the primary sponsors talking about their personal experiences with disability. Senator Harkin spoke of his brother who is deaf, Senator Kennedy of his son, who has a leg amputation, and Representative Coelho, who has epilepsy spoke about how the discrimination he faced almost destroyed him.

The witnesses spoke of their own experiences with discrimination. A young woman who has cerebral palsy, told the Senators about a local movie theater that would not let her attend because of her disability. When her mother called the theater to protest that this attitude “sounded like discrimination,” the theater owner stated “I don’t care what it sounds like.” This story became a symbol for the ADA and was mentioned throughout the floor debates and at the signing. The members and the President related this story to demonstrate that America “does care what it sounds like” and will no longer tolerate this type of discrimination.

A Viet Nam veteran who had been paralyzed during the war and came home using a wheelchair testified that when he got home and couldn’t get out of his housing project, or on the bus, or off the curb because of inaccessibility, and couldn’t get a job because of discrimination he realized he had fought for everyone but himself – and he vowed to fight tirelessly for passage of the ADA. The President of Galludet College, gave compelling testimony about what life is like for someone who is deaf, faced with pervasive communication barriers. The audience was filled with Galludet students who waved their hands in approval.

The committee also received boxes loaded with thousands of letters and pieces of testimony that had been gathered in hearings across the country the summer before from people whose lives had been damaged or destroyed by discrimination.

A woman testified that when she lost her breast to cancer, she also lost her job and could not find another one as a person with a history of cancer. Parents whose small child had died of AIDS testified about how they couldn’t find any undertaker that would bury their child.

At this Senate hearing and in all the many hearings in the House, members of Congress heard from witnesses who told their stories of discrimination. With each story, the level of consciousness was raised and the level of tolerance to this kind of injustice was lowered. The stories did not end in the hearing room. People with disabilities came from around the country to talk to members of Congress, to advocate for the Bill, to explain why each provision was necessary, to address a very real barrier or form of discrimination. Individuals came in at their own expense, slept on floors by night and visited Congressional offices by day. People who couldn’t come to Washington told their stories in letters, attended town meetings and made endless phone calls.

And it was a long haul. After the spectacular Senate vote of 76 to 8 on September 7,1989, the Bill went to the House where it was considered by an unprecedented four Committees. Each Committee had at least one subcommittee hearing, and more amendments to be explained, lobbied and defeated. Grass roots organizing became even more important because by this time many business associations had rallied their members to write members of Congress to oppose or weaken the bill. The perseverance and commitment of the disability movement never wavered. Through many moments of high stress and tension, the community stayed unified. For every hearing the hearing room was full and for every proposed amendment to weaken the bill letters poured in and the halls of Congress were canvassed. As the effective date for Title III of the ADA covering Public Accommodations and Title II of the ADA covering State and Local Government passed by on January 26, 1992. As the effective date for the employment provisions in Title I of the ADA approach on July 26, 1992, the awareness of the ADA and its requirements is heightened. For the first time in the history of our country, or the history of the world, businesses must stop and think about access to people with disabilities. If the ADA means anything, it means that people with disabilities will no longer be out of sight and out of mind. The ADA is based on a basic presumption that people with disabilities want to work and are capable of working, want to be members of their communities and are capable of being members of their communities and that exclusion and segregation cannot be tolerated. Accommodating a person with a disability is no longer a matter of charity but instead a basic issue of civil rights.

While some in the media portray this new era as falling from the sky unannounced, the thousands of men and women in the disability rights movement know that these rights were hard fought for and are long overdue. The ADA is radical only in comparison to a shameful history of outright exclusion and segregation of people with disabilities. From a civil rights perspective the Americans with Disabilities Act is a codification of simple justice.


Settlement and history of the British Virgin Islands

Tortola was first settled in 1648 by Dutch buccaneers who held the island until it was taken over in 1666 by a group of English planters. In 1672 Tortola was annexed to the British-administered Leeward Islands. In 1773 the planters were granted civil government, with an elected House of Assembly and a partly elected Legislative Council, and constitutional courts. The abolition of slavery in the first half of the 19th century dealt a heavy blow to the agricultural economy. In 1867 the constitution was surrendered and a legislative council was appointed that lasted until 1902, when sole legislative authority was vested in the governor-in-council. In 1950 a partly elected and partly nominated legislative council was reinstated. Following the defederation of the Leeward Islands colony in 1956 and the abolition of the office of governor in 1960, the islands became a crown colony. In 1958 the West Indies Federation was established, but the British Virgin Islands declined to join, in order to retain close economic ties with the U.S. islands. Under a constitutional order issued in 1967, the islands were given a ministerial form of government. The constitution was amended in 1977 to permit a greater degree of autonomy in internal affairs.


One of the Last Slave Ship Survivors Describes His Ordeal in a 1930s Interview

More than 60 years after the abolition of slavery, anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston made an incredible connection: She located one of the last survivors of the last slave ship to bring captive Africans to the United States.

Hurston, a known figure of the Harlem Renaissance who would later write the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, conducted interviews with Oluale Kossola (renamed Cudjo Lewis),਋ut struggled to publish them as a book in the early 1930s. In fact, they were only released to the public in a book called Barracoon: The Story of the Last 𠇋lack Cargo” that came out in May of 2018.

Author Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960).

Hurston’s book tells the story of Lewis, who was born Oluale Kossola in what is now the West African country of Benin. A member of the Yoruba people, he was only 19 years old when members of the neighboring Dahomian tribe invaded his village, captured him along with others, and marched them to the coast. There, he and about 120 others were sold into slavery and crammed onto the Clotilda, the last slave ship to reach the continental United States.

The Clotilda brought its captives to Alabama in 1860, just a year before the outbreak of the Civil War. Even though slavery was legal at that time in the U.S., the international slave trade was not, and hadn’t been for over 50 years. Along with many European nations, the U.S. had outlawed the practice in 1807, but Lewis’ journey is an example of how slave traders went around the law to continue bringing over human cargo.

To avoid detection, Lewis’ captors snuck him and the other survivors into Alabama at night and made them hide in a swamp for several days. To hide the evidence of their crime, the 86-foot sailboat was then set ablaze on the banks of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta (its remains may have been uncovered in January 2018).

Most poignantly, Lewis’ narrative provides a first-hand account of the disorienting trauma of slavery. After being abducted from his home, Lewis was forced onto a ship with strangers. The abductees spent several months together during the treacherous passage to the United States, but were then separated in Alabama to go to different owners.

A marker to commemorate Cudjo Lewis, considered to be the last surviving victim of the Atlantic slave trade between Africa and the United States, in Mobile, Alabama.

Womump/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 4.0

“We very sorry to be parted from one ’nother,” Lewis told Hurston. “We seventy days cross de water from de Affica soil, and now dey part us from one ’nother. Derefore we cry. Our grief so heavy look lak we cain stand it. I think maybe I die in my sleep when I dream about my mama.”

Lewis also describes what it was like to arrive on a plantation where no one spoke his language, and could explain to him where he was or what was going on. “We doan know why we be bring ’way from our country to work lak dis,” he told Hurston. 𠇎verybody lookee at us strange. We want to talk wid de udder colored folkses but dey doan know whut we say.”

As for the Civil War, Lewis said he wasn’t aware of it when it first started. But part-way through, he began to hear that the North had started a war to free enslaved people like him. A few days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered in April 1865, Lewis says that a group of Union soldiers stopped by a boat on which he and other enslaved people were working and told them they were free.

Erik Overbey Collection, The Doy Leale McCall Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of South Alabama

Lewis expected to receive compensation for being kidnapped and forced into slavery, and was angry to discover that emancipation didn’t come with the promise of 𠇏orty acres and a mule,” or any other kind of reparations. Frustrated by the refusal of the government to provide him with land to live on after stealing him away from his homeland, he and a group of 31 other freepeople saved up money to buy land near Mobile, which they called Africatown.

Hurston’s use of vernacular dialogue in both her novels and her anthropological interviews was often controversial, as some black American thinkers at the time argued that this played to black caricatures in the minds of white people. Hurston disagreed, and refused to change Lewis’ dialect—which was one of the reasons a publisher turned her manuscript down back in the 1930s.

Many decades later, her principled stance means that modern readers get to hear Lewis’ story the way that he told it.


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